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USA: Die Gilman-Gesetze
Der Abgeordnete Benjamin A. Gilman hat am 17.10.2001 im Alleingang einen Gesetzesentwurf eingebracht: Freedom to Trade Act  H.R.3151.
Das Gesetz soll Religionsfreiheit mit wirtschaftlichem Druck durchsetzen.
Am 16.10.2001 hat Gilman zusammen mit der Abgeordneten Ros-Lethinen einen Gesetzentwurf eingebracht, in dem sogar Strafen vorgesehen sind:
Trans-Atlantic Religious Protection Act (TARPA) H. R. 3145

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Die Scientology-Zeitschrift "Freiheit" berichtete im November 2001 über eine Gesetzesinitiative des Senators Benjamin Gilman:

"Die angestrebte Gesetzgebung soll ermöglichen, ausländische Diskriminierer vom amerikanischen Markt auszuschließen und ihren Vertretern die Einreise in die Vereinigten Staaten zu verweigern".
Weitere deutschsprachige Berichte sind bisher nicht bekanntgeworden.
Das legt die Vermutung nahe,  daß diese Initiative im Interesse der Scientology-Organisation liegt, vielleicht sogar von Scientology initiiert wurde.
Zumal Gilman bereits mehrfach im Interesse der Scientology-Organisation tätig war.
 

Solche Gesetze wären eine weitere Maßnahme der USA gegen europäische Scientology-Kritik.
Derartige Maßnahmen begannen, nachdem die US-Regierung 1993 Scientology nach jahrzehntelanger juristischer Auseinandersetzung überraschend und aus bis heute ungeklärten Gründen als gemeinnützig anerkannt hatte.

Bruno Fouchereau hat im Mai 2001 in seinem Artikel "USA UND SCIENTOLOGY - Im Namen der Freiheit" die amerikanischen Maßnahmen gegen europäische Sekten-Kritik  beschrieben und die Hintergründe dargestellt. Text-Beispiel: "Sämtliche erreichbaren Beamten der drei genannten US-Kommissionen mussten zugeben, dass sie von diesen Texten weder das Original noch übersetzte Fassungen kennen. McFarland entschuldigt dies mit der Versicherung, er halte die Informationen, die ihm die amerikanischen Nachrichtendienste, die Pariser Botschaft, akademische Experten und die frankreichkritischen Nichtregierungsorganisationen übermitteln, für hinreichend glaubwürdig. "

Stephen Kent hatte zuvor schon in seinem Artikel über "Die europäisch-amerikanische Debatte" konstatiert, daß "amerikanische Behördenvertreter kaum informiert zu sein scheinen über die Grundlage der kritischen Position der Europäer und daß diese Behördenvertreter Empfänger der selektiven Informationen waren, die von Scientology und Scientology-Unterstützern eingesetzt wurden".

Tilman Hausherr berichtet auf seiner Internet-Seite Clearwatergate: US politics and Scientology mit zahlreichen Links auf Fundstellen:

"Rep Benjamin A. Gilman (R-NY), chairman on the Committee on International Relations, claimed on the house floor that Scientologists, namely Chick Corea, are "discriminated". He started to claim this in 1996. In 1999 he co-wrote a letter to the European Council in an unsuccessful effort to prevent them from publishing a report critical on cults. On 21.10.1999, he complained in a press release that "European countries are following the German example", and supported H.RES 388 IH and H.RES 588 IH, and introduced H.R.3151. Who pays him? Scientologist Craig Jensen, his wife Sally Jensen and Isadore Chait."


Der Gesetzentwurf HR 3151 und die Religionsfrage

Im Gesetzentwurf H. R. 3151 des Benjamin A. Gilman vom 17.10.2001 sind diverse Definition enthalten.
Eine Definition für Religion fehlt.
Das würde bedeuten, daß jeder Betroffene eine Definition erzwingen kann, indem er vor Gericht vorträgt, Scientology sei keine Religion.
Fälle könnte es viele geben.
Zum Beispiel könnte eine deutsche Firma betroffen sein, die Schutzerklärungen verwendet.

Bisher wurde Scientology in den USA auf der Verwaltungsebene nicht als Religion definiert, sondern lediglich als gemeinnützig.
Auf politischer Ebene wurde dann gelegentlich Religion daraus.
Das ist aber nur eine Meinungsäußerung des jeweiligen Politikers.

Wenn dieser Entwurf Gesetz würde, dann könnte in den USA wieder einmal vor Gericht verhandelt werden, ob es sich bei Scientology um eine Religion handelt.
Scientology hatte in den USA eine ganze Serie solcher Prozesse verloren, in denen es darum ging, ob Scientology gemeinnützig ist oder Steuern bezahlen muß. Scientology hat diese Prozesse verloren. Die US-Gerichte hatten Scientology als Wirtschaftsorganisation angesehen.
1993 konnte Scientology dann triumphieren: "Der Krieg ist vorüber".
Die US-Bundesregierung hatte Scientology als gemeinnützig anerkannt.
Die Hintergründe dieser überraschenden Entscheidung sind bis heute ungeklärt.
Seither wird von den USA offenbar erwartet, daß die verbündeten Staaten Scientology als Religion behandeln.
In Deutschland haben die maßgeblichen Gerichte Scientology als Wirtschaftsorganisation eingestuft.
Die Scientology-Organisation behauptet demgegenüber immer wieder, sie sei in Deutschland durch 30 Gerichtsurteile als Religion anerkannt worden. Allerdings sind diese Urteile nirgendwo auffindbar. Dazu mit weiteren Nachweisen




Der Artikel aus der Scientology-Zeitschrift "Freiheit"
Ausgabe im Zeitungsformat ohne Angabe einer Nummer oder eines Datums, verbreitet ab November 2001
 

USA: Schärfere Sanktionen gegen Diskriminierer
Die Senatoren Ileana Ros-Lehtinen und Benjamin Gilman, zwei prominente Mitglieder des US-Kongresses, haben Gesetzesvorlagen eingereicht, die amerikanische Firmeneigentümer und ihre Mitarbeiter auch im Ausland gegen Diskriminierung schützen sollen, zum Beispiel wegen ihrer Religionszugehörigkeit oder Herkunft. Die angestrebte Gesetzgebung soll des Weiteren ermöglichen, ausländische Diskriminierer vom amerikanischen Markt auszuschließen
und ihren Vertretern die Einreise in die Vereinigten Staaten zu verweigern.

 

Der Gilman-Gesetzentwurf:
 
Aus:
http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HR03151:@@@L&summ2=m&
http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c107:H.R.3151:
H.R.3151 
Sponsor: Rep Gilman, Benjamin A.(introduced 10/17/2001) 
Latest Major Action: 10/17/2001 Referred to House committee 
Title: To prohibit United States nationals, permanent resident aliens, or United States Government
agencies from entering into agreements with foreign persons who prevent or inhibit a United States
business from undertaking a commercial activity, or otherwise discriminate against the business, on the basis of the religious beliefs, practices or associations, sexual orientation, race, or gender of an
individual associated with the United States business, and for other purposes. 

Freedom to Trade Act (Introduced in the House)

HR 3151 IH 

                             107th CONGRESS

                                1st Session

                                HR 3151

To prohibit United States nationals, permanent resident aliens, or United States Government agencies
from entering into agreements with foreign persons who prevent or inhibit a United States business from
undertaking a commercial activity, or otherwise discriminate against the business, on the basis of the
religious beliefs, practices or associations, sexual orientation, race, or gender of an individual
associated with the United States business, and for other purposes. 

                     IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                            October 17, 2001

Mr. GILMAN introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on International
Relations, and in addition to the Committees on Financial Services, and the Judiciary, for a period to be
subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall
within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned 
 
 

                                 A BILL

To prohibit United States nationals, permanent resident aliens, or United States Government agencies
from entering into agreements with foreign persons who prevent or inhibit a United States business from
undertaking a commercial activity, or otherwise discriminate against the business, on the basis of the
religious beliefs, practices or associations, sexual orientation, race, or gender of an individual
associated with the United States business, and for other purposes. 

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in
    Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the `Freedom to Trade Act'.

SEC. 2. PROHIBITION ON CERTAIN AGREEMENTS.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a United States national, a permanent resident alien,
    or a United States Government agency may not enter into an agreement, including an agreement
    to provide a loan, guarantee, credit, or other financing, with a foreign person who directly or
    indirectly prevents or inhibits a United States business from undertaking a commercial activity, or
    otherwise discriminates against the business, on the basis of the religious beliefs, practices or
    associations, sexual orientation, race, or gender of an individual with an ownership interest in the
    United States business, an employee of the business, or an agent of the business.

SEC. 3. PROHIBITION ON MULTILATERAL ASSISTANCE.

    The Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct the United States executive director of each
    international financial institution to use the voice and vote of the United States to oppose any
    assistance from that financial institution to any foreign person that engages in any of the conduct
    described in section 2.

SEC. 4. EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN ALIENS.

    (a) EXCLUSION- The Secretary of State shall deny a visa to, and the Attorney General shall
    exclude from the United States, any alien who the Secretary of State determines is a person who,
    after the date of the enactment of this Act, engages in any of the conduct described in section 2.

    (b) EFFECTIVE DATE- Subsection (a) applies to an alien seeking to enter the United States on
    or after the date of the enactment of this Act.

SEC. 5. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:

        (1) COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY- The term `commercial activity' has the meaning given that
        term in section 1603(d) of title 28, United States Code.

        (2) FOREIGN PERSON- The term `foreign person' means any foreign person or entity,
        including the government of a foreign country, a foreign business, or a foreign
        nongovernmental organization.

        (3) GOVERNMENT OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY- (A) The term `government of a foreign
        country' includes the government of any political subdivision of the country, and any agency
        or instrumentality of the government of the country.

        (B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term `agency or instrumentality of the government
        of the country' means an agency or instrumentality of a foreign state as defined in section
        1603(b) of title 28, United States Code.

        (4) PERMANENT RESIDENT ALIEN- The term `permanent resident alien' means an alien
        lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States.
 

Gilman hat bereits früher zwei Resolutions-Anträge an das US-Parlament unterstützt:
 
Aus:  http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c106:H.RES.388:
H. RES. 388
Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives with respect to government discrimination in Germany based on religion or belief. 

Aus:  http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c106:H.RES.588:
H. RES. 588
Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives with respect to violations in Western Europe of provisions of the Helsinki Final Act and other international agreements relating to the freedom of individuals to profess and practice religion or belief.



Übersetzung sinngemäß:
H. RES. 388    Resolution zum Ausdruck der Aufmerksamkeit des House of Representatives für staatliche Diskriminierung in     Deutschland aufgrund von Religion oder Glauben.
H. RES. 588  Resolution zum Ausdruck der Aufmerksamkeit des House of Representatives für Verletzungen in Westeuropa der Vereinbarungen der Helsinki-Schlußakte und anderer internationaler Vereinbarungen betreffend die Freiheit des Einzelnen, Religion oder Glauben zu bekennen oder zu praktizieren.

 

Der Gesetzentwurf von Ros-Lethinen und Gilman:
 
Aus: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c107:H.R.3145:


Trans-Atlantic Religious Protection Act (TARPA) of 2001 (Introduced in the House)

HR 3145 IH

107th CONGRESS

1st Session

H. R. 3145

To promote greater cooperation between the United States and its European allies toward religious tolerance and to require the imposition of punitive measures with respect to entities that discriminate against individuals or groups on the basis of religion or belief.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

October 16, 2001

Ms. ROS-LEHTINEN (for herself and Mr. GILMAN) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on International Relations, and in addition to the Committees on the Judiciary, and Ways and Means, for a period subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned


A BILL

To promote greater cooperation between the United States and its European allies toward religious tolerance and to require the imposition of punitive measures with respect to entities that discriminate against individuals or groups on the basis of religion or belief.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the `Trans-Atlantic Religious Protection Act (TARPA) of 2001'.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
      (1) Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that `[e]veryone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance'.
      (2) Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights states that `[n]o one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or adopt a religion or belief of his choice'.
      (3) The member countries of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) have undertaken a series of specific commitments designed to ensure the freedom of the individual to profess and practice religion or belief, including a commitment by those countries to ensure the full and effective exercise of the freedom of thought, conscience, religion, or belief, in their laws and regulations.
      (4) Principle VII of the Helsinki Final Act commits the OSCE member countries to `recognize and respect the freedom of the individual to profess and practice, alone or in community with others, religion or belief acting in accordance with the dictates of his own conscience'.
      (5) The 1989 Vienna Concluding Document commits the OSCE member countries to `take effective measures to prevent and eliminate discrimination against individuals or communities on the grounds of religion or belief in the recognition, exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms in all fields of civil, political, economic, social and cultural life'.
      (6) In the 1991 Moscow Document, the OSCE member countries `categorically and irrevocably declare that the commitments undertaken in the field of the human dimension . . . are matters of direct and legitimate concern to all participating States and do not belong exclusively to the internal affairs of the State concerned'.
      (7) Freedom of thought, conscience, religion, or belief is inextricably linked to the exercise of other rights, including the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association, the right to freedom of association with others, and the right to freedom of expression, and the recognition that all persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law, including in employment.
      (8) The United States Department of State's annual reports on religious freedom and human rights have documented numerous instances of government discrimination in Western Europe based on religion or belief, including discriminatory acts against American members of several different religious denominations and beliefs.
      (9) Both the Office of the United States Trade Representative and the Department of State have objected to the use of discriminatory procurement practices by German Federal, state and local governmental agencies and private entities which have the potential to discriminate against United States firms in procurement decisions by permitting agencies and firms to reject bids and terminate contracts with firms that do not attest that the firm and its employees are not affiliated with certain religious beliefs.
      (10) In France, Federal and local governmental agencies, as well as private businesses responding to French Government actions, have terminated contracts with a United States-owned software firm solely because of the religious beliefs of the firm's founder.
      (11) A law enacted by the French Parliament on May 30, 2001, contains repressive measures which would have a chilling effect on the freedom religion and belief, including the dissolution of targeted religious associations, the imprisonment of members of such groups, and infringement upon freedom of speech, including speech intended to persuade another person to a particular point of view, whether philosophical or religious.
      (12) His Holiness Pope John Paul II has spoken out against the new French law as potentially devastating. While formally accepting the credentials of the new French Ambassador to the Holy See, the Pope reminded the ambassador that `religious liberty in the full sense of the term, is the first human right . . . [t]his means a liberty which is not reduced to the private sphere only . . . [t]o discriminate [against] religious beliefs, or to discredit one or another form of religious practices is a form of exclusion contrary to the respect of fundamental human values and will eventually destabilize society, where a pluralism of thought and action should exist, as well as a benevolent and brotherly attitude . . . [t]his
will necessarily create a climate of tension, intolerance, opposition and suspect, not conducive to social peace'.
      (13) United States Department of State officials testifying on the new French law before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on May 1, 2001, and the House Committee on International Relations on July 11, 2001, underscored that `[t]he United States is concerned that such policies are becoming institutionalized in some parts of Europe and are having the effect of appearing to justify restrictive laws elsewhere such as Russia, Central Asia, and even China'.
      (14) A 1996 French National Assembly report listed 173 organizations as suspect, including independent evangelical Christian churches, Scientologists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Unificationists and this report has been used by both private and official entities to harass, intimidate, deny employment, and deny commercial loans to listed groups, and members of other religious groups, such as Southern Baptists, Seventh Day Adventists, the Catholic Charismatic Renewal movement, Opus Dei, and the Society of Jesus, have also been subject to recent discrimination and harassment at the hands of the French Government.
      (15) The Parliament of Austria passed a law in 1997 which codified a tiered system of government recognition and preferential treatment and which requires religious groups seeking recognition to undergo government surveillance for at least 10, or up to 20, years to prove legitimacy to government officials.
      (16) The Austrian law on religion is cited as justification for more repressive laws being proposed in nascent democracies further east, such as Hungary and Romania, and has been cited by Russian officials as justification for an oppressive 1997 Russian religion law.
      (17) The Government of Austria has instituted a `sect' office which disseminates official propaganda on religious groups not recognized by the government and leading to a chilling effect on religious liberty.
      (18) The Parliament of Belgium issued a report in 1997 on `sects' with a widely circulated informal appendix listing 189 groups as suspect, including many Protestant and Catholic groups, Quakers, Hasidic Jews, Buddhists, and members of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), based on rumor and speculation found in police files, and implicitly warning the public to avoid such `dangerous' groups.
      (19) The Parliament of Belgium has established a government Center for Information and Advice on Harmful Sectarian Organizations which disseminates official views on groups considered `sects' as defined by the list in the appendix to the 1997 Belgian Parliament report.
      (20) On April 29, 1998, the Italian Ministry of Internal Affairs sent a report to the lower house of the Italian Parliament entitled `Cults and New Magical Movements in Italy'. This report mentions that the Ministry of Internal Affairs monitors 137 groups--76 of which are categorized as `new religions' and 61 as `new magical movements'. This report, according to Dr. Massimo Introvigne of CESNUR in Italy, notes that `the real danger is that, because of the media event created around the report, respectable and law-abiding citizens who happen to be members of movements mentioned, but explicitly exonerated from any charge in the report may be discriminated against or maligned'.
      (21) Some evangelical and charismatic Christian churches have been targeted in parliamentary investigations in France, Belgium, and Germany.
      (22) Jehovah's Witnesses have been subjected in France to various forms of harassment, have been informed by German state tax authorities that the long-standing exemption from property taxation for their houses of worship may be canceled in the near future, continue to suffer from employment discrimination in Austria, France, and Germany, and have been discriminated against in foster parent proceedings in Germany and in some child custody matters in Belgium.
      (23) Muslims have been subjected to harassment, including police brutality and attacks by extremist groups, particularly in Germany and France, and Muslim women are subject to frequent discrimination and other forms of abuse and harassment because they wear a head covering.
      (24) Adherents to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have been subject to continued acts of harassment, including confiscation of religious materials, and are prevented from freely sharing their beliefs in several Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) member countries.
      (25) Members of the Church of Scientology have been subject to pervasive civil, political, and economic discrimination, harassment, surveillance, and orchestrated boycotts in Germany, France, Belgium, and Austria.
      (26) The Law of Sects in Spain, passed in 1989, authorizes the police to investigate `sects' with a `destructive' character. As a result, a special unit was created within the police to investigate these allegedly dangerous sects.
      (27) The Government of the Canary Islands, one of Spain's 17 regions, has refused to grant permission to the Salvation Army to open a center for needy children on the grounds that the Salvation Army is categorized as a `destructive sect'.
      (28) Actions by Western European governments have contributed to intolerance by public and private actors who have discriminated in hiring practices or terminated employment based on an individual's religious affiliation.
      (29) The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks against the United States have intensified fears of infringement and violations of religious freedom,
with experts cautioning against the use of the antiterrorism effort as an excuse for arbitrary abuses and proliferation of anti-sect laws and lists such as those used by European countries to monitor or restrict particular religious groups.

SEC. 3. DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS.

    (a) GENERAL EFFORTS- The President and the Secretary of State--
      (1) shall raise violations of freedom of thought, conscience, religion, or belief at every appropriate level with representatives of European countries that have failed to implement their international commitments and obligations in this regard;
      (2) shall make full use of existing meetings and structures of international organizations and multilateral fora to raise violations by Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) member countries of freely undertaken international commitments both to protect and to provide for the full and effective exercise of the freedom of thought, conscience, religion, or belief under their respective jurisdictions; and
      (3) to the maximum extent practicable, shall appoint experts on religious liberty to United States delegations to appropriate meetings of international organizations.
    (b) UNITED STATES-EU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY MEETINGS- United States representatives to the United States-European Union Inter-Parliamentary meetings, should raise at such meetings the issue of laws, regulations, and other practices in the members countries which infringe upon freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief and take concrete steps to address these violations.

SEC. 4. ACTIONS BY DEPARTMENT OF STATE.

    (a) DIVERSITY AND TOLERANCE EXCHANGES- The Secretary of State, through the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Exchange, shall promote educational and cultural workshops and forums among academics, religious leaders, and human rights organizations in the United States and their European counterparts in an effort to promote a better understanding of religious and philosophical diversity and a tolerant society.
    (b) HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORS- The Secretary of State, through the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor and the Bureau of Diplomatic and Consular Affairs, shall train United States human rights monitors stationed at European posts to identify, investigate, and monitor persecution and discrimination on the basis of religion or belief.
    (c) DENIAL OF VISAS- The Secretary of State may not issue a visa to, and the Attorney General shall exclude from the United States, any alien who the Secretary of State determines is a high-ranking official of the government of a country, or a commercial or other entity of a government, which is in violation of international obligations to guarantee and ensure the full and effective exercise of freedom of thought, conscience, religion, or belief.
    (d) TRAVEL ADVISORIES- The Secretary of State shall issue travel advisories on countries which discriminate on the basis of religion or belief advising Americans of the potential dangers faced by individuals who are members of targeted groups.

SEC. 5. ACTIONS BY UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE.

    The President shall, in accordance with section 301(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2411(a)(1)), direct the United States Trade Representative--
      (1) to take all appropriate action authorized under section 301(c) of such Act against each European country the government of which engages in or tolerates violations of religious freedom (as determined under section 401 of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998), including the imposition of duties or other import restrictions on goods of such country that are similar to the goods of a United States individual or United States business (or its subsidiary) that is subject to such violations of religious freedom; and
      (2) to initiate appropriate action at the World Trade Organization against each European country described in paragraph (1).

SEC. 6. ACTIONS BY DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE.

    The President shall direct the Secretary of Commerce--
      (1) to incorporate into the programs and assistance of the International Trade Administration guidelines and warnings regarding the discriminatory practices of European countries against United States products or businesses (and their subsidiaries) on the basis of religion or belief; and
      (2) to make it a priority to advocate on behalf of United States businesses being discriminated against by European countries on the basis of religion or belief to ensure full market access and achieve full compliance by such countries with international trade agreements and accords entered into with the United States.

SEC. 7. PRESIDENTIAL WAIVER.

    (a) WAIVER- Subject to subsection (b), the President may waive any provision of this Act with respect to a country if the President determines and so reports to Congress that--
      (1) the government of the country has ceased the violations giving rise to the action under this Act;
      (2) the exercise of the waiver would further the purposes of this Act; or
      (3) it is important to the national interests of the United States to do so.
    (b) CONGRESSIONAL NOTIFICATION- Prior to exercising his authority to waive any provision of this Act pursuant to subsection (a), the President shall notify Congress of the waiver together with a detailed justification thereof.



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